From Words to Deeds: Exploring the Practice of Armed Non-State Actors and its Impact on the Implementation of International Law

Started in January 2017

Context

An increasing number of international organizations and non-governmental organizations recognize the need to engage armed non-state actors (ANSAs) as a means of enhancing their respect for international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law.

The reasons for ANSAs’ lack of compliance with international law are diverse. They include, sometimes, sheer ignorance of the law and a lack of incentives to abide by the rules. Furthermore, while the state still has the primary responsibility to respect and ensure respect for international law in its territory, in some instances circumstances might not allow it to do so in practice. This is the case when a certain part of a state’s territory is outside its control for a prolonged period of time or when the state’s structures have totally collapsed. In these cases, the lack of clarity of the applicable legal framework weakens accountability and the possibility of obtaining reparations for the victims.

Objectives

It is not uncommon for ANSAs to argue that either they have a different understanding and interpretation of international norms or they lack the capacity to implement them. Furthermore, certain ANSAs can express their commitment to a rule to which they are not in principle bound by international law (for example, the commitment not to use anti-vehicle mines or to abstain from using anti-personnel mines).

From a theoretical point of view, while international customary law is formed by state practice and opinio juris, reflecting on the practice and views of ANSAs is not deprived of a certain level of normativity. In fact, ANSAs might feel bound by the norms that they have agreed upon rather than by international treaties or international customary norms, as they did not participate in their elaboration. In this regard, the norms emerging from their own practice might have a higher chance of being implemented.

Against this background, this project aims to understand and study the practice and views of ANSAs on key norms of IHL and human rights law. It will also provide an outlook on the norms that are accepted or rejected by ANSAs, with a view to ensuring a better implementation of international law by these actors. In the longer term, the objective of the research is to provide material to elaborate on a possible ‘Model Code of Conduct’ for ANSAs.

Methodology

The project will be conducted mainly through desk research. An advisory board composed of renowned experts and practitioners will supervise the process. In addition, interviews with selected ANSAs will be conducted in the field.

Partnership

This project is conducted in partnership with the Swiss NGO Geneva Call.

RESEARCHER

Picture of Annyssa Bellal

Annyssa Bellal

Research Fellow and Strategic Adviser on International Humanitarian Law

Annyssa Bellal's areas of expertise include public international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and armed non-state actors.

Publications

Cover of the Policy Briefing No1: Reactions to Norms Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians

Policy Briefing N°1: Reactions to Norms Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians

January 2014

Stuart Casey-Maslen, Marina Mattirolo, Alice Priddy

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Cover of the Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors

Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors

October 2011

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Download >

MORE ON THIS THEMATIC AREA

Banner Geneva Academy Wednesday

Book Launch: ‘The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law’

November 2017, 18:30-20:00

This event marks the launch of Dr Katharine Fortin’s new book ‘The Accountability of Armed Groups under Human Rights Law’.

Read more

UN Mission patrols disputed area in Sudan Short Course

Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict and Fragile Situations

13 April - May 2018

This course provides a concise and systematic treatment of the peacebuilding process in post-conflict and fragile situations. It adopts a holistic definition of peacebuilding that combines the socio-political issues with economic growth in a sustainable development perspective.

Read more

Syria, Old city of Aleppo. Destructed houses situated next to the frontline stand side by side alongside intact houses full of occupants just a few meters away from the frontline Short Course

The Classification of Armed Conflicts

11 January - February 2018

This course aims to study, in depth, an emblematic example of the complexity of international humanitarian law and the challenges it raises: the classification of armed conflicts.

Read more

UN Peacekeepers on Patrol in Abyei, Sudan Project

Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Completed in January 2005

This research project aimed to clarify the multiple facets of post-conflict peacebuilding.

Read more

Libya, Misrata, Tripoli Street. Combattants carefully move into a building. Project

Armed Non-State Actors and the Protection of Civilians

Completed in March 2010

This research project looked at the reactions to norms of more than 30 armed groups worldwide.

Read more