Sandra Krähenmann

Sandra Krähenmann

Senior Research Fellow

Areas of expertise

Qualification of Armed Conflict  /  International Human Rights Law  /  Counter-terrorism  /  States of Emergency  /  Positive Obligations  /  Extraterritoriality

Sandra Krähenmann is a Senior Research Fellow at the Geneva Academy.

Her research focuses on the theory and practice of international law that applies in armed conflict and other situations of violence, including terrorism, and the intersection between transitional justice and peacebuilding in international law.

Previously, Dr Krähenmann worked in the law of armed conflict section at the Swiss Ministry of Defence, as a consultant for the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), and as a teaching assistant at both the Geneva Academy and the University of Geneva.

She holds a PhD in International Law from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Her doctoral thesis examined the doctrine of positive obligations in human rights treaties.

Taught Courses and Research Projects

UN Peacekeepers on Patrol in Abyei, Sudan. Zambian peacekeepers from the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) patrol streets lined with looted items awaiting collection in Abyei, the main town of the disputed Abyei area on the border of Sudan and newly Project

The Intersection between Transitional Justice, International Security and Responsibility to Protect

This project aims at mapping various existing accountability mechanisms, in the context of military interventions, through the lens of the requirements of a transitional justice process in order to identify possibilities and gaps.

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Syria, Aleppo, Sheikh Massoud neighbourhood, near the frontline. Fighters of the Free Syrian Army. Project

‘Foreign Fighters’ and Counter-Terrorism

Against the background of the mobilization of ‘foreign fighters’ for the conflicts in Syria and Iraq, the Geneva Academy undertook various research projects to highlight and clarify a range of international law issues that arise through their participation and measures taken to stem their mobilization.

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Screenshot of the RULAC webpage Project

Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts (RULAC)

The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts project (RULAC) is a unique online portal that identifies and classifies all situations of armed violence that amount to an armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL). It is primarily a legal reference source for a broad audience, including non-specialists, interested in issues surrounding the classification of armed conflicts under IHL.

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North Kivu province, Kitchanga downtown. The insanitary conditions next to the market worsens the situation of the residents affected by the recent violence. Executive Master - Course

The Interplay between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

This course focuses on the specific issues that arise in times of armed conflict regarding the respect, protection and fulfillment of human rights. It addresses key issues like the applicability of human rights in times of armed conflict; the possibilities of restricting human rights under systems of limitations and derogations; and the extraterritorial application of human rights law.

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Iraq,  A worker of the Al-Zubai centre tends to graves of recovered but unidentified casualties of war. Master in transitional justice - Course

Accountability and International Law: An Introductory Framework

This course provides an introductory overview of international law principles relating to accountability for human rights atrocities more generally. It introduces students to the relevant sources, mechanisms and actors, as well as the limits to accountability under international law.

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Cover of the Book Definitions

Definitions (Forthcoming)

April 2018

Sandra Krähenmann

Frank Haldemann and Thomas Unger, The United Nations Principles to Combat Impunity. A Commentary, Oxford University Press

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The Challenge of "Foreign Fighters" to the International Liberal Order (Forthcoming)

February 2018

Sandra Krähenmann

Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law 2016

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Cover of The Obligations of the State of Nationality or Habitual Residence, State of Transit, and State of Destination

The Obligations of the State of Nationality or Habitual Residence, State of Transit, and State of Destination

February 2016

Sandra Krähenmann

Andrea de Guttry, Francesca Capone and Christophe Paulussen, Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, TMC Asser

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Cover of the Research Handbook on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law

Positive Obligations During Armed Conflict

October 2013

Sandra Krähenmann

Robert Kolb and Gloria Gaggioli, Research Handbook on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Edward Elgar Publishing

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