15 October 2018
We have now added to our Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts (RULAC) online portal a detailed analysis and legal classification of the non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) that take place in the Central African Republic (CAR) since December 2012.
Visitors can discover an overview of the conflicts , the factual and methodological basis for their classification as NIACs, state and non-state parties and the applicable international law.
‘The CAR government, supported by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Mission (MINUSCA) and previously by France, is involved in a NIAC against several armed groups, such as the ex-Séléka and the anti-Balaka groups’ underlines Chiara Redaelli, Research Fellow at the Geneva Academy. ‘Recently, the intensity of armed confrontations between MINUSCA and certain armed groups has increased and led to conclude that it is also a party to the conflict. In addition, there are parallel NIACs among different armed groups which aim to secure and expand their territorial control’ she adds.
‘Our analysis shows that armed groups in CAR, notably ex-Séléka and Balaka armed groups, the Popular Front for the Rennaissance in the Central African Republic (FPRC), the Mouvement Patriotique Centrafricain (MPC), the Union for Peace in the Central African Republic (UPC) and Return, Reclamation and Rehabilitation (3R), exhibit the required degree of organization – existence of a command structure and disciplinary rules and mechanisms; ability to procure, transport and distribute arms; ability to plan, coordinate and carry out military operations; ability to negotiate and conclude agreements – to qualify these conflicts as NIACs’ stresses Chiara Redaelli.
Initiated in 2007, RULAC is an online portal that systematically qualifies situations of armed violence using the definition of armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL). While RULAC is still under development and new entries continue to be regularly added, it currently monitors more than 26 armed conflicts involving at least 39 states that visitors can discover either by browsing the map or by browsing conflicts by type or region.
‘The RULAC database is unique in the world in that it legally classifies situations of armed violence that amount to an armed conflict under IHL’ underlines Marco Sassòli, Director of the Geneva Academy.
‘This is crucial because IHL applies only in armed conflicts. Before humanitarian players, civil servants or academics can invoke IHL or analyze whether IHL was violated, they must know whether it applies. Outside armed conflicts, only international human rights law applies’ he adds.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has been affected by several armed conflicts in recent decades. The regions that have been most affected are Kivu, Kasai, and Ituri, although violence is widespread and affects the whole country. Our Rule of Law in Armed Conflict Online Portal (RULAC) provides a detailed analysis and legal classification of these conflicts, including information about parties.
These Guidelines aim to bring much needed clarity and support for the conduct of effective investigations into violations of international humanitarian law. They are the result of a five-year project initiated in 2014 by the Geneva Academy and joined in 2017 by the International Committee of the Red Cross.
A side event co-organized with Geneva Call at the 33rd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.
This short course aims to study, in depth, an emblematic example of the complexity of international humanitarian law and the challenges it raises: the classification of armed conflicts.
This short course discusses the protection offered by international humanitarian law (IHL) in non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) and addresses some problems and controversies specific to IHL of NIACs, including the difficulty to ensure the respect of IHL by armed non-state actors.
Medical Aid for Palestinians / Ezz Al Zanoon
This project aims to ensure better protection of and assistance for persons with disabilities in situations of armed conflict or its aftermath by identifying legal obligations to protect and assist persons with disabilities during conflict, and the policies and practices required to put these obligations into effect.
This project looked at how to enhance compliance by armed non-state actors with international norms, taking into account the views both of the actors themselves and the experiences of those engaged in dialogue with them.